The 14th International Conference on

Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences

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The p-block is on the right side of the periodic table and includes elements from the six columns beginning with column 13 and ending with column 18. Their general valence configuration is ns2 np1–6. Helium, though being in the top of group 18, is not included in the p-block. Except for the first row (which has none), each row of the table has place for six p-elements.

This block contains a variety of elements and is the only block that contains all three types of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Generally, the p-block elements are best described in terms of element type or group.

The p-block elements are unified by the fact that their valence electrons (outermost electrons) are in the p orbital. The p orbital consists of six lobed shapes coming from a central point at evenly spaced angles. The p orbital can hold a maximum of six electrons, hence there are six columns in the p-block. Elements in column 13, the first column of the p-block, have one p-orbital electron. Elements in column 14, the second column of the p-block, have two p-orbital electrons. The trend continues this way until column 18, which has six p-orbital electrons.

They are mostly covalent in nature and the block is a stronghold of the octet rule, especially columns 14–17. They show variable oxidation states. The reactivity of elements in a group generally decreases downwards.


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